The industrial sector is inherent with giant machinery and equipment. Absolutely, transformers that provide substantial voltage to them have vital significance in different types of industries. Ranging from substations and power plants to aerospace, biochemical, manufacturing industries and telecommunication industries, diversified appliances utilizing transformers are seen.
Transformer – What it is?
It is an electric apparatus that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another circuit through the process of electromagnetic induction. It is most commonly used to increase or decrease the voltage levels between circuits.
A transformer consists of three main parts – primary windings, secondary windings, and magnetic core. The primary windings are nothing but the turns connected to the primary source of electricity. The magnetic core allows magnetic flux to pass through it and links with secondary winding and emf is induced. The voltage from the secondary windings is the output that is supplied to other circuits.
Working Principle of Transformer
The transformer works with the principle of Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction.
Basically, Faraday’s law states that when a conductor is placed in a varying magnetic field, an electromotive force (EMF) is induced.
When current passes through an electric circuit, certain magnetic flux develops around it and induces a current in the secondary circuit.
The current from the primary coils produces a flux around it that moves across the transformer core. Based on the electromagnetic induction law, this flux develops current in the secondary coils. In this process, there is no change in frequency.
What is the function of the Transformer?
The function of a transformer is to step up or step down the alternating voltage by maintaining power at the same level, without a change in frequency. The number of turns in the primary and secondary windings decides the increase or decrease in the voltage levels. Generally, transformers used at the generating side (increase the voltage level) are called as step-up transformers and transformers used at load end (decrease the voltage level) are called as step-down transformers.
Apart from these in two ways, a transformer may be even designed with the same number of coils at both ends. Then, there won’t be any change in the voltage level. However, they are meant for safety purposes.
Applications of Transformers
Generally, the power from power generation plants is produced at 3.3/6.6/11 kV. In order to reduce transmission line (carries power to end consumer) losses, the voltage is stepped up at generating substations to very high levels (66/132/220/400 kV). These transformers are called as step-up power transformers.
But, this high voltage cannot be used as it is at the end. So, the voltage should be again decreased to the end-use of (6.6/3.3/0.433 kV). Step-up and step-down transformers are used to increase or decrease the voltage levels at the necessary places to ensure perfect voltage maintenance.
Importance of Transformers in the Industrial Sector
It is important for the industrial sector to ensure appropriate, safe and careful usage of power supply to avoid unnecessary power issues.
- Automobile Industry
In order to charge the batteries of multiple electric vehicles at a time, customized smart transformers are designed nowadays. They can monitor the voltage levels and enable cost-savings as well.
- Electrochemical Industry
In electrochemical industries, electroplating is a common process. Electrolysis of different elements like Copper, Zinc, Aluminium, Chlorine, etc. is carried out – rectifier transformers play an important role in such processes.
- Steel Manufacturing Industry
Specific customized transformers are used here to ensure high voltage supply safely. They are well-built to bear the dielectric, mechanical, and thermal constraints of a steel furnace.
Also, they are even used in many industries like aerospace, military, biochemical and biomedical, data processing, communications, manufacturing industries, etc.
Points to be kept in mind while buying a transformer
It’s quite essential to keep certain points in mind while purchasing a transformer.
- Phases of power supply
Firstly, you need to check if you want a single-phase transformer or a three-phase transformer. Simple equipment and household power appliances need single-phase transformers and commercial, industrial applications that need three-phase transformers.
- kVA Requirement
It’s important to note the load requirements before choosing a transformer. If huge loads are to be maintained then the transformer with more capacity should be selected.
- Voltage requirement
You need to find the input voltage supply and check the necessity of the voltage needed for different devices.
- Frequency requirement
The frequency of the transformers used in India is generally 50 Hz as the power supply for diversified power-based applications is the same. Still, in some countries like U.S., the transformers are designed to enable the frequency of 60 Hz according to their power supply systems.
Transformers can be installed indoors or outdoors. Based on the size, application, and other location conditions, you need to select the right transformer.
So, for an industry, or a residential complex, or a commercial mall, it is necessary to safely monitor and manage the voltage regulation and power supply. Servomax Limited is one of the best companies offering excellent models, sizes, and capacities of transformers. Servomax Limited is the eminent transformer manufacturer in India – it provides power transformers, distribution transformers, isolation transformers, and ultra-isolation transformers suitable to meet the customized needs of global customers.